There are many threats that directly and/or indirectly affect local populations of boreal caribou and their habitat, including:
habitat loss, degradation and fragmentation;
predation, mainly by wolves and bears;
over-harvesting (hunting, poaching);
noise and light disturbance (from forestry; oil, gas and mining operations; low-level aircraft flights; use of snowmobiles and all-terrain vehicles);
parasites and disease; and
changes in weather and climate.